Excellent paper, in open access journal, on development forces/directions in the Democratic Republic of Congo April 23, 2017

Fabiana D´Ascenzo . (2013). An African metropolis: the imploded territoriality of Kinshasa. Investigaciones Geográficas, Boletín del Instituto de Geografía, 80: 98-110.

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From pages 100-101:

This type of territorial structure significantly influences the way the country functions, on a domestic level and also in terms of international relations, both African and non-African.

Modes of development directed away from the centre (centrifugal) prevail over integration factors and are represented by three spheres of influence:

  • one in the West, concentrated on Kinshasa and looking towards the Atlantic, via Matadi;
  • one in the East, which is almost completely lacking in links with the capital city and is oriented towards the Indian Ocean;
  • and one in the South, where the copper mines are located and which is focussed towards southern Africa (Figure 1).

Department of Historical Sciences, University of Naples

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